REALISM
Current confusion between Naturalism and Realism aside, there can be a realism on the level of appearances, as in Impressionism, or a realism on the conceptual plane, as in Cubism. Every great artist creates his own 'reality' -- external and internal -- which he must transcribe in an autonomous and personal idiom, although two fundamental attitudes are to be distinguished: one that leans toward representation of reality, the other toward suggestive expression of it through metaphor or abstraction. Modern art has resolutely adopted the latter course, so frequently described as nonrealistic. After the revolutionary audacities of the beginning of the century and its extraordinary creative outburst, a period of release and reaction occurred at the close of the First World War. This was only a matter of returning to order, to Nature, to traditional realism. The best representatives of this tendency, whose force was felt by all artists for a time, are Dunoyer de Segonzac, Jean Marchand, Luc-Albert Moreau, André Mare, Yves Alix, Boussaingault and La Patellière. Sincere and honest artists of considerable talent, some of them former participants in the exhibition of the Section d'Or, they retained of Cézanne only his simplified arrangement of volumes and made up for their lack of plastic invention by masterful craftsmanship and a somewhat ostentatious sensuousness of texture. Sound in its principles but sterile, their attitude revealed a legitimate distrust of intellectualist excesses and a profound longing for good workmanship (vide Dunoyer de Segonzac, Boussaingault, La Patellière). A similar phenomenon occurred again in 1945, when the 'painters of poetic reality' (vide Brianchon, Legueult, Oudot) formed a group around Brianchon, this time under the banner of Bonnard rather than of Cézanne.
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