Chronological Survey 1866 - 1907


1866 "The Fifer" and "The Tragedian" being rejected by the Salon jury, Manet shows them at his studio in the Rue Guyot.
May 1. Opening of the Salon, while outside a noisy demonstration of rejected painters takes place. Courbet shows his "Forest Covert with Deer" and "Woman with a Parrot," both received enthusiastically by the public.
May 1. Zola writes in "L'Evénement": "Our fathers laughed at Monsieur Courbet, and today we go into ecstasies over him. We laugh at Monsieur Manet; it will be our sons who go into ecstasies over his canvases." After two articles in this vein, his readers protest so violently that Zola is relieved of his duties as art critic for "L'Evénement."
1866 April. Baudelaire is stricken with paralysis.
1867 January 1. In "La Revue du XIXe siècle" Zola publishes a 23-page article on Manet.
A large number of painters have their work rejected at the Salon. Manet submits nothing. Fantin-Latour "Portrait of Manet" is accepted.
Paris World's Fair. Out of his own pocket Manet spends the equivalent of about 12,000 present-day dollars to put up a wooden pavilion near the Place de l'Alma not far from Courbet's private pavilion. Here he exhibits the following paintings: The Absinthe Drinker, Concert at the Tuileries, The Spanish Guitar-Player, Nymph taken by Surprise, Boy with a Sword, The Street Singer, The Old Musician, Young Man in the Costume of a Majo, Mademoiselle V. in the Costume of an Espada, The Spanish Ballet, Lola de Valence, Young Woman in a Spanish Costume, Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe, Christ with Angels, Olympia, The Kearsarge and the Alabama, The Port of Boulogne, Portrait of Zacharie Astruc, Christ insulted by Soldiers, The Tragedian, Woman with a Parrot, Woman playing the Guitar, The Fifer, Torero saluting.
"Husbands drove their wives to the Pont de l'Alma. Feeling it was too fine an opportunity to pass up, they came to treat themselves and their families to a good laugh. Every selfrespecting' painter in Paris turned up at the Manet Exhibition. They all went wild with laughter. . . All the papers without exception followed their lead" ( Antonin Proust).
June. Manet paints a "View of the World's Fair from the Trocadéro."
1867 June 19. Maximilian, Emperor of Mexico, condemned to death and executed at Queretaro.
1867 Late June and July. Manet paints the first version of The Execution of Maximilian" with a view to exhibiting it in his pavilion, but he is forbidden to do so by the authorities. Summer. Manet stays at Boulogne, then at Trouville. September 1. Death of Baudelaire. Manet returns to Paris for the funeral, which takes place on the 3rd.  
1868 Manet's "Portrait of Zola" and "Woman with a Parrot" (painted in 1866) are accepted at the Salon. Summer stay at Boulogne: "Le Déjeuner à l'atelier." Berthe Morisot frequents his studio in the Rue Guyot.  
1869 "Le Déjuner" and "The Balcony" accepted at the Salon. Eva Gonzalès paints with Manet and poses for him. Summer. A stay at Boulogne and a trip to London.
1869 Birth of Henri Matisse.
1870 A duel takes place between Manet and Duranty. At the Salon Fantin-Latour exhibits "A Studio at Batignolles," which shows Manet painting the portrait of Zacharie Astruc while Zola, Renoir, Sisley, Bazille and Monet stand by. Manet exhibits his "Portrait of Mademoiselle E. G." ( Eva Gonzalès) and "The Music Lesson" at the Salon. July 19. Outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War. September. Manet's family leaves Paris for Oloron-SainteMarie in the Pyrenees, while Manet himself receives a commission as a lieutenant. He serves on the General Staff under the painter Meissonier, who is a colonel, and remains in Paris until the surrender of the French armies in January 1871.  
1871 The two men having made up their differences, Duranty publishes an article on Manet in "Paris-Journal" in which he praises the painter's work wholeheartedly. February 12. Manet leaves Paris to join his family at OloronSainte-Marie. On the 21st he goes to Bordeaux where he paints "The Port of Bordeaux." He then visits Arcachon. May. Manet and his family return to Paris shortly before the end of the Commune. August. His nerves strained to the breaking-point by the events of the past year, Manet seeks rest and quiet on the Channel coast at Boulogne. Abandoning the Café Guerbois, Manet and his friends henceforth gather at "La Nouvelle Athènes," a new café on the Place Pigalle in Montmartre.  
1871 The picture-dealer Paul Durand-Ruel (who in London during the war had made the acquaintance of Monet and Pissarro and begun buying their pictures) now buys some 30 canvases from Manet, for which he pays over 50,000 francs (over 10 million French francs in present-day money). Manet refuses to include in the deal either "Concert at the Tuileries," "Le Déjeuner sur l'herbe," "Olympia," or "The Execution of Maximilian," for which, as we learn from one of his notebooks, he was then asking 6000, 25,000, 20,000 and 25,000 francs respectively.
1871 Birth of Georges Rouault. 1872 At the Salon Manet shows "The Kearsarge and the Alabama," already exhibited twice before and now owned by Durand-Ruel. July. He moves to a new studio at 4 Rue de Saint-Pétersbourg. August. A trip to Holland.  
1873 At the Salon Manet shows "Rest" ( Berthe Morisot resting on a sofa), painted In 1869 and lent by Durand-Ruel, and "Le bon bock," painted early in the year; the latter is a great success. July-September. At Berck-sur-mer, where he paints many seascapes, both in oils and watercolor. About 1873 Manet becomes friendly with Mallarmé. October 28. Fire ravages the Opera House in the Rue le Peletier, where that same year Manet had made sketches for his "Ball at the Opera." This event leads him to revert to the theme, on which he produces several canvases.  
1874 May 14. He submits "Ball at the Opera" and "The Railroad" to the Salon; only the latter is accepted. In "La Renaissance" Mallarmé publishes an article on Manet.
1874 April 15. Opening of a group exhibition at Nadar's, with works by Cézanne, Degas, Monet, Berthe Morisot, Pissarro, Renoir and Sisley; Manet refuses to take part. April 25. Reviewing the exhibition in "Le Charivari," Louis Leroy ridicules a canvas by Monet entitled "Impression, Sunrise" and mockingly coins the term "impressionist," which catches on immediately.
 1874 Summer. Manet stays at Gennevilliers and Argenteuil on the Seine, where he paints in the impressionist manner and works alongside Monet, producing, among other pictures, "The Monet Family in the Garden." December 22. Marriage of Berthe Morisot and Eugène Manet.  
1874 December 24. A letter from the publisher Poulet-Malassis informs Manet that the engraver Bracquemond has just finished an ex-libris for him: "I don't know whether Bracquemond told you that I originated the design. It wasn't much trouble finding the subject and the motto: it's your bust on a knoll with the words 'Manet et manebit,' a play in Latin on your name, which means 'he remains and will remain.'"  
1875 Manet "Argenteuil" shown at the Salon and warmly praised in articles by Philippe Burty and Camille Pelletan. June. Publication of Edgar Allen Poe "The Raven" in a French translation by Mallarmé with woodcuts by Manet. September. Manet makes a trip to Venice where he paints "The Grand Canal" in the impressionist manner.
1875 Death of Corot.
1876 "The Wash" and "The Artist" being rejected at the Salon, Manet exhibits them together with "Olympia" and other works in his studio in the Rue de Saint-Pétersbourg. August. A stay at Fécamp on the Normandy coast. September. "Portrait of Mallarmé."
1876 April. Second Group Exhibition of the Impressionists.
1877 "The Portrait of Faure as Hamlet" accepted but "Nana" rejected at the Salon; the latter is then exhibited in a curio shop on the Boulevard des Capucines.
1877 April. Third Group Exhibition of the Impressionists. December 30. Death of Courbet.
1878 Manet sends in nothing either to the Salon or the World's Fair exhibition. June 6. An auction-sale by court order of the belongings of the wealthy collector Hoschedé is a complete fiasco; Manet "Woman with a Parrot" fetches a mere 700 francs. July. Manet moves to 77 Rue d'Amsterdam, having been evicted from his studio in the Rue de Saint-Pétersbourg because of the public exhibition he had held there in 1876. Before leaving he paints two canvases showing the Rue Mosnier as seen from his windows.  
1879 April. Manet proposes to the authorities of the city of Paris to decorate the Hôtel-de-Ville with a series of decorative compositions entitled "Paris-Halles, Paris-Chemins de fer, Parts-Port, Paris-Souterrain, Paris-Courses et jardins." He receives no reply to his proposal.  
1879 Accepted at the Salon are "M. and Mme Jules Guillemet in a Greenhouse," painted in 1878, and "In a Boat," painted in 1874 at the same time as "Argenteuil." Both are praised by Huysmans in an article in "Voltaire." July 26. "La Revue politique et littéraire" publishes in translation an excerpt from an article by Zola: "Manet seems to have worn himself out with producing too much in too great haste; he is satisfied with the merely approximate; he does not study nature with a true creator's passion." Zola thereupon writes to Manet: "The translation of the passage quoted is inaccurate." The truth is that the translation was as accurate as Zola's criticism was ill-founded. September-October. Manet follows his first course of treatment at Bellevue. He takes his ailment for rheumatism; what he is really suffering from is locomotor ataxy.
1879 February 11. Death of Daumier. April-May. Fourth Group Exhibition of the Impressionists; Renoir abstains, successfully showing at the Salon.
1880 April 10. Manet holds a one-man show in the offices of "La Vie Moderne," exhibiting "The Plum," "Monet painting in his Boat" and "Skating," among other works. Sends in his "Portrait of Antonin Proust" and "Chez le Père Lathuille" to the Salon. June 19. In "Voltaire" Zola makes amends for the article of the previous year, writing of Manet: "His key position in the transition period through which our French school is now moving will some day be recognized. He will stand out as its most acute, most interesting, most original figure." July-September. Three months' treatment at Bellevue, where Manet and his family rent a villa. He paints a number of canvases of still lifes and figures in a garden. His letters from Bellevue are decorated with tiny watercolor sketches. October. His illness has not abated, but he takes up the round of daily life in Paris where he had left it. His wife and mother hold open house on Thursdays and organize small concerts and recitals at which Chabrier, Mallarmé and Clemenceau are frequently to be seen. Manet does a painting showing the escape of Henri Rochefort from New Caledonia where he had been exiled in 1873 after the Commune. Rochefort had just been pardoned. Manet plans to send this picture in to the 1881 Salon.
1880 April. Fifth Group Exhibition of the Impressionists; Gauguin takes part, Renoir and Monet abstain.
1881 Manet decides to send in no more than a "Portrait of Rochefort" so as not to rekindle the political scandal touched off by the incident. He also submits a "Portrait of Pertuiset" showing the famous lion-hunter stalking game in a Paris garden with a lion-skin beside him. Many find the picture ridiculous but Manet nevertheless wins a second-class medal for it. This made him "hors concours," which meant that he could henceforth exhibit freely at the Salon whatever the jury thought of his pictures. Summer. Manet rents a villa at Versailles. He realizes that he is a very sick man, writing to Mallarmé on July 30: "I'm not very pleased with the state of my health since I've come to Versailles." He does two wash-drawings to illustrate Mallarmés translation of Poe "Annabel Lee," a few garden scenes and a "Portrait of Henry Bernstein as a Child." Autumn. Back in Paris he works on "Un bar aux FoliesBergère." December 30. Manet finally named "Chevalier de la Légion d'Honneur" thanks to Antonin Proust, now Minister of Arts.  
1882 March 24. Election of the jury members of the Salon. In an attempt to blackball them, a list of the 17 painters who had voted the second-class medal to Manet is passed around, but this manœuvre has no influence on the election. April. Great success of "Un bar aux Folies-Bergère" and "Spring" at the Salon. Summer at Rueil. Manet has increasing difficulty in walking.  
1883 March. Shortly before the 25th, Manet begins his last work, an unfinished pastel portrait of Elisa, Méry Laurent's chambermaid who had brought him flowers from her mistress. April 6. Manet is bedridden, having lost the use of his legs. On the 20th he undergoes an amputation of his left leg, but dies on the 30th. He is buried at Passy cemetery on May 3.  
1884 January. Posthumous Manet Exhibition at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. Zola writes the preface to the catalogue. 13,000 visitors between the 5th and the 28th.  
1889 At the Paris World's Fair exhibition 15 paintings by Manet, including "Olympia," are the object of general admiration.  
1890 "Olympia" is purchased from Manet's widow by public subscription and offered to the state. Refused by the Louvre, it is hung in the Luxembourg Museum. It was transferred to the Louvre i
1907 by Clemenceau, then Prime Minister.  


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